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Vol. 35. Núm. S1.
Recomendaciones para el Soporte Nutricional del paciente crítico
Páginas 72-76 (Noviembre 2011)
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Vol. 35. Núm. S1.
Recomendaciones para el Soporte Nutricional del paciente crítico
Páginas 72-76 (Noviembre 2011)
DOI: 10.1016/S0210-5691(11)70015-8
Acceso a texto completo
Recomendaciones para el soporte nutricional y metabólico especializado del paciente crítico. Actualización. Consenso SEMICYUC-SENPE: Paciente séptico
Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient. Update. Consensus of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units-Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SEMICYUC-SENPE): Patient with sepsis
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C. Ortiz Leybaa,??
Autor para correspondencia
carlos.ortiz.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es

Autor para correspondencia.
, J.C. Montejo Gonzálezb, C. Vaquerizo Alonsoc
a Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, España
b Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, España
c Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Madrid, España
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Información del artículo
Resumen

El manejo metabólico nutricional constituye, junto al resto de medidas de tratamiento y soporte, uno de los pilares del tratamiento del paciente séptico. Debe iniciarse precozmente, tras la resucitación inicial, con el objetivo de evitar las consecuencias de la desnutrición, proveer el adecuado aporte de nutrientes y prevenir el desarrollo de complicaciones secundarias como la sobreinfección y el fracaso multiorgánico.

Al igual que en el resto de pacientes críticos, cuando la ruta enteral es insuficiente para asegurar las necesidades caloricoproteicas, la asociación de nutrición parenteral ha demostrado ser segura en este subgrupo de pacientes. Los estudios que evalúan el efecto de farmaconutrientes específicos en el paciente séptico son escasos y no permiten est ablecer recomendaciones al respecto.

Respecto a las dietas enterales con mezcla de sustratos con diferente capacidad farmaconutriente, su uso no parece aportar, hasta el momento actual, beneficios claros sobre la evolución de la sepsis respecto a las dietas estándar, aunque tampoco hay clara evidencia de que sean perjudiciales.

A pesar de que no hay suficiente evidencia para recomendar el empleo de glutamina en el paciente séptico que recibe nutrición parenteral, éste podría beneficiarse de su uso, dados los buenos resultados y la ausencia de efectos adversos atribuible a la glutamina en los diferentes estudios llevados a cabo en el conjunto de pacientes críticos. No se puede recomendar el empleo rutinario de ácidos grasos ω-3 hasta que dispongamos de mayor evidencia, aunque debe evitarse en estos pacientes el empleo de emulsiones lipídicas con alto contenido en ácidos grasos ω-6. El paciente séptico debe recibir un adecuado aporte de oligoelementos y vitaminas. El empleo de selenio a dosis altas requiere de más estudios para poder recomendarlo.

Palabras clave:
Sepsis
Shock séptico
Glutamina
Arginina
Abstract

Nutritional metabolic management, together with other treatment and support measures used, is one of the mainstays of the treatment of septic patients. Nutritional support should be started early, after initial life support measures, to avoid the consequences of malnutrition, to provide adequate nutritional intake and to prevent the development of secondary complications such as superinfection or multiorgan failure.

As in other critically-ill patients, when the enteral route cannot be used to ensure calorie-protein requirements, the association of parenteral nutrition has been shown to be safe in this subgroup of patients. Studies evaluating the effect of specific pharmaconutrients in septic patients are scarce and are insufficient to allow recommendations to be made.

To date, enteral diets with a mixture of substrates with distinct pharmaconutrient properties do not seem to be superior to standard diets in altering the course of sepsis, although equally there is no evidence that these diets are harmful.

There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of glutamine in septic patients receiving parenteral nutrition. However, given the good results and absence of glutamine-related adverse effects in the various studies performed in the general population of critically-ill patients, these patients could benefit from the use of this substance. Routine use of omega-3 fatty acids cannot be recommended until further evidence has been gathered, although the use of lipid emulsions with a high omega-6 fatty acid content should be avoided. Septic patients should receive an adequate supply of essential trace elements and vitamins. Further studies are required before the use of high-dose selenium can be recommended.

Keywords:
Sepsis
Septic shock
Glutamine
Arginine
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SEMICYUC: Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias. SENPE: Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral.

Copyright © 2011. Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Critica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC) and Elsevier España, S.L.
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