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Vol. 36. Núm. 4.
Páginas e1-e44 (Mayo 2012)
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Vol. 36. Núm. 4.
Páginas e1-e44 (Mayo 2012)
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DOI: 10.1016/j.medin.2012.02.007
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Guías de práctica clínica para el manejo del síndrome de bajo gasto cardíaco en el postoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca
Clinical practice guide for the management of low cardiac output syndrome in the postoperative period of heart surgery
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J.L. Pérez Velaa,??
Autor para correspondencia
perezvela@yahoo.es

Autor para correspondencia.
, J.C. Martín Benítezb, M. Carrasco Gonzálezc, M.A. De la Cal Lópezd, R. Hinojosa Péreze, V. Sagredo Menesesf, F. del Nogal Saezg, Grupo de Trabajo de Cuidados Intensivos Cardiológicos y RCP de SEMICYUC, con el aval científico de la SEMICYUC
a Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, España
b Servicio de Medicina intensiva, Hospital Clínico Universitario San Carlos, Madrid, España
c Unidad Postoperatorio de Cirugía Cardiaca, Hospital Vall d’Hebrón, Barcelona, España
d Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario de Getafe, Getafe Madrid, España
e Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, España
f Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca, España
g Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Leganés, Madrid, España
Contenido relaccionado
Med Intensiva. 2012;36:277-8710.1016/j.medin.2012.01.016
J.L. Pérez Vela, J.C. Martín Benitez, M. Carrasco Gonzalez, M.A. de la Cal López, R. Hinojosa Pérez, V. Sagredo Meneses, F. del Nogal Saez
Med Intensiva. 2012;36:59710.1016/j.medin.2012.07.008
M.D. Carrasco
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Bibliografía
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Tablas (6)
Tabla 1. Determinación de la calidad de la evidencia
Tabla 2. Factores que determinan la fuerza o la debilidad de la recomendación
Tabla 3. Objetivos hemodinámicos a conseguir
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Resumen

El síndrome de bajo gasto cardiaco es una potencial complicación de los pacientes intervenidos de cirugía cardiaca, y asocia un aumento de la morbi-mortalidad. La presente guía pretende proporcionar recomendaciones para el manejo de estos pacientes, en el postoperatorio inmediato, ingresados en UCI. Las recomendaciones se han agrupado en diferentes apartados, tratando de dar respuesta desde los conceptos más básicos como es la definición, a los diferentes apartados de monitorización básica y avanzada y terminando con el complejo manejo de este síndrome. Se propone un algoritmo de manejo inicial, asi como otros de fracaso ventricular predominantemente izquierdo o derecho. La mayor parte de las recomendaciones están basadas en el consenso de expertos, debido a la falta de estudios clínicos aleatorizados, de adecuado diseño y tamaño muestral en este grupo de pacientes. La calidad de la evidencia y la fuerza de las recomendaciones se realizó siguiendo la metodología GRADE. La guía se presenta como una lista de recomendaciones (y nivel de evidencia de cada recomendación) para cada pregunta del tema seleccionado. A continuación, en cada pregunta, se procede a la justificación de las recomendaciones.

Palabras clave:
Síndrome de bajo gasto cardiaco
Fracaso ventricular
Cirugía cardiaca
Metodología GRADE
Abstract

The low cardiac output syndrome is a potential complication in cardiac surgery patients and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This guide is to provide recommendations for the management of these patients, immediately after surgery, admitted to the ICU. The recommendations are grouped into different sections, trying to answer from the most basic concepts such as the definition to the different sections of basic and advanced monitoring and ending with the complex management of this syndrome. We propose an algorithm for initial management, as well as two other for ventricular failure (predominantly left or right). Most of the recommendations are based on expert consensus because of the lack of randomized trials of adequate design and sample size in this group of patients. The quality of evidence and strength of the recommendations were made following the GRADE methodology. The guide is presented as a list of recommendations (and level of evidence for each recommendation) for each question on the selected topic. Then for each question, we proceed to the justification of the recommendations.

Keywords:
Low cardiac output syndrome
Ventricular failure
Cardiac surgery
GRADE methodology
Siglas y acrónimos utilizados
ACC

American College of Cardiology

AHA

American Heart Association

BCIAo

balón de contrapulsación intraaórtico

CAP

catéter de arteria pulmonar

CEC

circulación extracorpórea

cTnI

troponina cardiaca I

ECC

ecocardiograma

ECG

electrocardiograma

ECMO

oxigenador de membrana extracorpórea (extracorporeal membrane oxigenator)

EPMI

elevación pasiva de miembros inferiores

ESC

European Society of Cardiology

ETE

ecocardiograma transesofágico

ETT

ecocardiograma transtorácico

FEVI

fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo

FV

fibrilación ventricular

GC

gasto cardiaco

GEDVI

volumen global al final de la diástole indexado (global end diastolic volumen index)

GRADE

Grading of Recommendations Assesment, Development and Evaluation (working group)

HL

hiperlactacidemia

HTP

hipertensión pulmonar

IC

índice cardiaco

ICA

insuficiencia cardiaca aguda

ICo

intervalo de confianza

IF-III

inhibidores de la fosfodiesterasa III

ITBVI

volumen sanguíneo intratorácico indexado (intra thoracic blood volumen index)

LiDCO

Lithium dilution cardiac output

LVEDAI

área telediastólica ventricular izquierda indexada (left ventricular end-diastolic area index)

NYHA

New York Heart Association

OR

odds ratio

PA

presión arterial

PAM

presión arterial media

PAS

presión arterial sistólica

PCC

postoperatorio de cirugía cardiaca

PCP

presión capilar pulmonar

PiCCO

Pulse-induced contour cardiac output

PVC

presión venosa central

RIFLE/AKIN

Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage renal failure/Acute Kidney Injury Network

RR

riesgo relativo

RVS

resistencias vasculares sistémicas

RVSI

resistencias vasculares sistémicas indexadas

SBGC

síndrome de bajo gasto cardiaco postoperatorio (de cirugía cardiaca)

SEMICYUC

Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias

SvcO2

saturación venosa central de oxígeno

SvO2

saturación venosa de oxígeno

TCI

tronco común izquierdo

TDTP

termodilución transpulmonar

TV

taquicardia ventricular

UCI

unidad de cuidados intensivos

Texto completo
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Apéndice 1

Listado de revisores, por orden alfabético de primer apellido

Nombre  Hospital 
Miguel Angel Alcala Llorente  Fundación Jiménez-Díaz. Capio. Madrid 
María Victoria Boado Varela  H. de Cruces. Bilbao 
María Angélica Corres Peiretti  H. Universitario 12 Octubre. Madrid 
Salvador Fojón Polanco  Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña 
Teresa García Paredes  H. R. Universitario Carlos Haya. Málaga 
Angel Herruzo Avilés  H. Universitario Virgen del Rocío. Sevilla 
Jose Luis Iribarren Sarrías  H. Universitario de Canarias. La Laguna. Tenerife 
Ruben Jara Rubio  H. Virgen de la Arrixaca. Murcia 
Juan Jose Jimenez Rivera  H. Universitario de Canarias. La Laguna. Tenerife 
Juan José Marín Salazar  Complejo Asistencial Universitario de Salamanca 
María Jesus Paniagua Martín  Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña 
Emilio Renes Carreño  H. Universitario 12 Octubre. Madrid 
Juan Carlos Robles Arista  H. Universitario Reina Sofía. Córdoba 
Pablo Torrabadella de Reynoso  H. Germans Trias i Pujol. Badalona. Barcelona 

Apéndice 2

Resumen de estudios clínicos publicados en inglés y español en relación con los fármacos inotrópicos en pacientes adultos de cirugía cardiaca

Referencia (primer autor)  Muestra (n)  Año de publicación  Diseño  Fármaco  Grupo placebo 
Talley415  22  1969  Abierto, prospectivo, aleatorizado  Dopamina vs isoproterenol  No 
Mueller416  10  1970  Abierto, prospectivo  Isoproterenol vs angiotensina  No 
Rosenblum248  15  1972  Abierto, prospectivo  Dopamina  No 
Sakamoto417  22  1977  Abierto, prospectivo, no aleatorizado  Dobutaminac  No 
Gattiker418  21  1978  Abierto, prospectivo  Dopamina, epinefrina, orciprenalina  No 
Gray249  1981  Abierto, prospectivo, cruzado  DBT, Dp, NA + fentolamina  No 
Cook419  10  1983  Abierto, prospectivo  Dopa vs dopa + digoxina  No 
Van Trigt259  20  1984  Abierto, prospectivo  Dopamina vs dobutamina  No 
Fowler260  10  1984  Abierto, prospectivo, cruzado  Dopamina vs dobutamina  No 
Disesa250  1986  Abierto, prospectivo, cruzado  Dopamina, dobutamina  No 
Costa420  30  1990  Abierto, aleatorizado, prospectivo  Dopamina, nitroprusiato  Sí 
Boldt421  40  1990  Abierto, no aleatorizado  Enoximona  Histórico 
Tarr422  10  1990  Abierto, no aleatorizado  Enoximona  No 
Schwenzer423  18  1990  Abierto, no aleatorizado  Dobutamina  No 
Santman424  10  1992  Prospectivo, no aleatorizado  Dopexamina  No 
Friedel425  20  1992  Abierto, prospectivo, no aleatorizado  Dopexamina  No 
Takasuke426  10  1992  Abierto, prospectivo  Dobutamin a y dopamina  No 
Royster264  40  1992  Prospectivo, abierto, aleatorizado  Cloruro cálcico, epinefrina  Sí 
Dupuis427  30  1992  Prospectivo, abierto, aleatorizado  Amrinona vs dobutamina  No 
Butterworth428  46  1992  Prospectivo, abierto, no aleatorizado  Amrinona vs dobutamina  No 
Ruokonen429  16  1993  Prospectivo, abierto, no aleatorizado  Dobutamina, nitroprusiato  Sí 
Tarr430  75  1993  Prospectivo, abierto, aleatorizado  Enoximona, dopamina, dobutamina  No 
Royster431  40  1993  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, simple ciego  Amrinona, epinefrina  Sí 
Butterworth432  39  1993  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Amrinona vs placebo  Sí 
MacGregor433  10  1994  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, abierto  Dopexamina vs dobutamina  No 
Günnicker262  20  1995  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, abierto  Adrenalina vs Amrinona  No 
Butterworth434  29  1995  Abierto  Milrinona  No 
Kikura435  27  1995  Prospectivo, abierto, no aleatorizado  Milrinona  Sí 
Kikura436  37  1997  Prospectivo, abierto, aleatorizado  Milrinona  Sí 
Rosseell251  63  1997  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego, multicéntrico  Dopexamina vs dopamina  No 
Berendes437  44  1997  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, abierto  Dopexamina  Sí 
Hachemberg438  20  1997  Abierto, aleatorizado  Enoximona vs dobutamina + nitroglicerina  No 
Totaro439a  36  1997  Prospectivo, aleatorizado  Epinefrina vs norepinefrina  No 
Jenkins440  20  1997  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Amrinona vs dobutamina  No 
Doolan268  32  1997  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Milrinona  Sí 
Lobato269  21  1998  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Milrinona  Sí 
Kikura441  28  1998  Prospectivo, abierto, no aleatorizado  Amrinona  Sí 
Butterworth211b  149  1998  Prospectivo, abierto no aleatorizado  Dobutamina, epinefrina, amrinona, dopa  Sí 
Rathmell442  44  1998  Prospectivo, multicéntrico, aleatorizado, ciego  Amrinona vs milrinona  No 
Lilleberg276  23  1998  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Levosimendan  Sí 
Romson255  100  1999  Abierto, prospectivo, no aleatorizado  Dobutamina  Sí 
Matsubayashi443  18  1999  Retrospectivo, no comparativo  Docarpamine  No 
Thoren444  14  2000  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, ciego, cruzado  Dopamina, dopexamina, dobutamina  No 
Yamada267  48  2000  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Milrinona  Sí 
Feneck258  120  2001  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, abierto, multicéntrico  Milrinona vs dobutamina  No 
Kikura445  45  2002  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, ciego  Amrinona vs milrinona  Sí 
Kivikko446  85  2003  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, abierto  Levosimendán  Sí 
Dernellis447  30  2005  Prospectivo, abierto, no controlado  Levosimendán  No 
Álvarez15  41  2006  Prospectivo, abierto, aleatorizado  Dobutamina vs levosimendán  No 
Tritapepe448  24  2006  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Levosimendán  Sí 
Al-Shawaf449  30  2006  Prospectivo, abierto, aleatorizado  Levosimendán vs milrinona  No 
Akgul450  15  2006  Prospectivo, abierto, no aleatorizado  Levosimendán  No 
Tasouli451  45  2007  Prospectivo, abierto  Levosimendán  No 
De Hert452b  30  2007  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, simple ciego  Dobutamina, levosimendán vs milrinona  No 
Heringlake263  251  2007  Piloto, prospectivo, aleatorizado, abierto  Adrenalina vs milrinona  Sí 
De Hert453b  60  2008  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, simple ciego  Dobutamina, levosimendán, milrinona  No 
El Mokhtari454  20  2008  Abierto, comparativo, prospectivo  Dopamina/dobutamina vs dopamina/dopexamina  No 
Järvelä455  24  2008  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Levosimendán vs placebo  Sí 
Beiras-Fernandez456  2008  Prospectivo, abierto  Levosimendán  No 
Levin14  137  2008  Prospectivo, aleatorizado  Levosimendán vs dobutamina  No 
Tritapepe275  106  2009  Prospective, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Levosimendán  Sí 
Zangrillo457  139 (5 estudios)  2009  Metaanálisis  Levosimendán  No 
Eriksson458  60  2009  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Levosimendán  Sí 
Noto459  2009  Retrospectivo  Terlipresina  No 
Landoni243  440  2010  Metaanálisis (10 estudios)  Levosimendán  – 
Ranucci460  80  2010  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Fenoldopam  Sí 
a

Se excluyeron pacientes con SBGC.

b

Estudio diseñado para valorar factores predictivos del uso de inotrópicos partiendo de una población de un estudio con nimodipino. El objetivo no eran las aminas. Cada médico podía administrar lo que considerase mejor.

c

Es el mismo estudio publicado en 2 revistas con algunos datos complementarios.

Apéndice 3

Otros estudios relacionados con inotrópicos y vasodilatadores en pacientes con fallo cardíaco- shock cardiogénico

Referencia (primer autor)  Muestra (n)  Año de publicación  Diseño  Fármaco  Grupo Placebo 
Smith461  14  1967  Prospectivo, abierto  Isoproterenol  No 
Rosenblum462  13  1968  Prospectivo, abierto  Isoproterenol  No 
Loeb463  62  1971  Prospectivo, abierto, cruzado  Dopamina, Noradrenalina, Isoproterenol  No 
Leier464  25  1977  Prospectivo, abierto  Dobutamina  No 
Loeb465  13  1977  Prospectivo, abierto  Dobutamina vs dopamina  No 
Richard466  1983  Prospectivo, abierto  Dopamina, dobutamina  No 
Baim467  20  1983  Prospectivo, abierto  Milrinona  No 
Packer468  31  1984  Abierto, prospectivo  Amrinona  No 
Monrad469  18  1985  Abierto, prospectivo  Milrinona  No 
Anderson470  189  1987  Prospectivo, abierto, multicéntrico  Milrinona  No 
Leier471  12  1988  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Dopexamina  Sí 
Leier472  12  1988  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Enoximona  Sí 
DiBianco473  230  1989  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Milrinona, digoxina  Sí 
Vincent474  13  1990  Abierto, prospectivo  Enoximona  – 
Uretsky475  102  1990  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, multicéntrico, doble ciego  Enoximona  Sí 
Packer476 (PROMISE)  1.088  1991  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Milrinona  Sí 
Butterworth428  46  1992  Prospectivo, abierto  Dobutamina, amrinona, Calcio  Sí 
Nieminen477  151  2000  Prospectivo, multicéntrico, aleatorizado, parcialmente doble ciego  Levosimendán vs placebo, y dobutamina  Sí 
Slawsky478  146  2000  Prospectivo, multicéntrico, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Levosimendán  Sí 
Yamani479  329  2001  Retrospectivo  Dobutamina vs milrinona  No 
Thackray233  632  2002  Metaanálisis  Inotrópicos  – 
Follath239 (LIDO)  203  2000  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, multicéntrico, doble ciego  Levosimendán vs dobutamina  No 
Cuffe480 OPTIME-CHF  949  2002  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego, multicéntrico  Milrinona  Sí 
Moiseyev481 RUSSLAN  504  2002  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Levosimendán  Sí 
Richard466  2003  Prospectivo, abierto  Dopamina, dobutamina  No 
Mebazaa240 (SURVIVE)  1.327  2007  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego, multicéntrico  Levosimendán, dobutamina  – 
Fuhrmann482  32  2008  Prospectivo, aleatorizado  Enoximona, levosimendán  No 
Mebazaa241  669 (estratificación del SURVIVE)  2009  Prospectivo, aleatorizado  Levosimendán vs dobutamina  – 
Russ483  25  2009  Prospectivo, observacional  Levosimendán  No 
De Backer244  1.679  2010  Prospectivo, aleatorizado, doble ciego  Dopamina vs norepinefrina  No 

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