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Vol. 35. Núm. S1.
Recomendaciones para el Soporte Nutricional del paciente crítico
Páginas 48-52 (Noviembre 2011)
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Vol. 35. Núm. S1.
Recomendaciones para el Soporte Nutricional del paciente crítico
Páginas 48-52 (Noviembre 2011)
Acceso a texto completo
Recomendaciones para el soporte nutricional y metabólico especializado del paciente crítico. Actualización. Consenso SEMICYUC-SENPE: Hiperglucemia y diabetes mellitus
Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient. Update. Consensus of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units-Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SEMICYUC-SENPE): Hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus
Visitas
...
C. Vaquerizo Alonsoa,??
Autor para correspondencia
cvaquerizo.hflr@salud.madrid.org

Autor para correspondencia.
, T. Grau Carmonab, M. Juan Díazc
a Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Madrid, España
b Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, España
c Hospital General Universitario, Ciudad Real, España
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Bibliografía
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Resumen

La hiperglucemia es una de las alteraciones metabólicas predominantes en los pacientes críticos y se asocia con un aumento de la morbimortalidad. Por ello, es necesario realizar un control efectivo y a su vez seguro de la glucemia, esto es, mantener la normoglucemia en un rango que evite el riesgo de desarrollar hipoglucemia, por un lado, y las cifras elevadas de glucemia, por otro. Para conseguirlo, en la mayoría de los casos es necesario el tratamiento con insulina evitando protocolos dirigidos a conseguir cifras estrictas de glucemias.

Con el fin de prevenir la hiperglucemia y sus complicaciones asociadas, el aporte energético debe adecuarse a los requerimientos de los pacientes, evitando la sobrenutrición y el aporte excesivo de glucosa. El aporte proteico se ajustará al nivel de estrés metabólico.

Siempre que el enfermo requiera nutrición artificial y no esté contraindicada debe emplearse la vía enteral, ya que la nutrición parenteral se asocia a mayor frecuencia de hiperglucemia y mayores necesidades de insulina. La administración de la nutrición enteral debe ser precoz, preferiblemente dentro de las primeras 24h de ingreso en UCI, tras la estabilización hemodinámica. Las dietas específicas para hiperglucemia que contienen hidratos de carbono de bajo índice glucémico, fibra y ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados podrían conseguir un mejor control glucémico con menores necesidades de insulina.

Palabras clave:
Hiperglucemia
Diabetes mellitus
Nutrición artificial
Control de glucemia
Abstract

Hyperglycemia is one of the main metabolic disturbances in critically-ill patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Consequently, blood glucose levels must be safely and effectively controlled, that is, maintained within a normal range, avoiding hypoglycemia on the one hand and elevated glucose concentrations on the other. To accomplish this aim, insulin is often required, avoiding protocols designed to achieve tight glycemic control.

To prevent hyperglycemia and its associated complications, energy intake should be adjusted to patients’ requirements, avoiding overnutrition and excessive glucose intake. Protein intake should be adjusted to the degree of metabolic stress.

Whenever patients require artificial feeding, the enteral route, if not contraindicated, should be used since parenteral nutrition is associated with a higher frequency of hyperglycemia and greater insulin requirements. Enteral nutrition should be administered early, preferably within the first 24 hours of admission to the intensive care unit, after hemodynamic stabilization. Specific diets for hyperglycemia, containing low glycemic index carbohydrates and fibre and enriched with monounsaturated fatty acids, can achieve good glycemic control with lower insulin requirements.

Keywords:
Hyperglycemia
Diabetes mellitus
Artificial nutrition
Glycemic control
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SEMICYUC: Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias. SENPE: Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral.

Copyright © 2011. Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Critica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC) and Elsevier España, S.L.
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